Formulation and Characterization of Antioxidant Capsules Containing Cantigi Extract-loaded Nanoparticles Synthesized Via Nanoprecipitation Method

  • Kosasih Kosasih Universitas Pancasila
  • Deny Susanti International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Immanuel Puji Hosanna Asianski Universitas Pancasila
  • Dede Irving Maryanto Universitas Pancasila
DOI: https://doi.org/10.58511/jnpdd.v1i2.6352
Abstract views: 152 | PDF downloads: 65
Keywords: Antioxidants, Cantigi extract, nanoprecipitation, release profile

Abstract

Cantigi extract exhibit numerous activities, including antioxidants. Various dosage forms have been developed, except a capsule formulation. Capsule formulation offers numerous advantages. Objectives: To prepare and characterize the cantigi extract, extract-loaded nanoparticles, capsules containing extract, and capsules containing nanoparticles as antioxidants. Methods: The Cantigi extract was prepared using the maceration method and characterized for both specific and non-specific parameters. The preparation of extract-loaded nanoparticles utilized the nanoprecipitation method with gelatin, poloxamer, and glutaraldehyde as the polymer, stabilizer, and crosslinker, respectively. Characterization of the nanoparticle included particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. Capsule formulation (F): F1 contained the extract, while F2 contained the nanoparticles. Capsule characterization involved assessment of content uniformity, weight variation, disintegration, and release profile. Antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH method for extract, nanoparticles and capsules. Results: The cantigi extract met specific and non-specific parameters. Nanoparticle size was found to be 235.8+12.62 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.226+0.050, a zeta potential of -8.53+0.27 mV, and an entrapment efficiency of 52.69+1.06%. Characteristics of F1 and F2 included content uniformity of 97.24+4.23 and 89.86+1.48%, weight variation of 185.5+1.31 and 127.22+1.86%, disintegration time of 3.67-4.08 and 5.35-5.97 minutes, extract content of 97.24+4.23 and 89.86±1.48%, and release rate of 86.78+3.98 and 61.79+3.48%, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extract, extract-loaded nanoparticles, and capsules (F1 dan F2) were determined to be 17.40+0.94, 33.60+1.85, 66.81+1.46, and 106.61+3.32 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: Cantigi extract and nanoparticles exhibited potent antioxidant activities while meeting quality parameters. The capsule formulation displayed varying antioxidant activities and release profiles, with capsules containing nanoparticles demonstrating a sustained release profile.

References

Bigler A. Science snippet: Antioxidants explained [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 October 10]. Available from: https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2023/07/science-snippet-antioxidants-explained/

Nash MH. Global biodiversity ranked: Which country has the most flora and fauna? [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 October 10]. Available from: https://www.greenroofs.com/2022/10/24/global-biodiversity-ranked-which-country-has-the-most-flora- and- fauna/

Kosasih K, Redja IW, Farida Y. IAI SPECIAL EDITION: In vitro anti-ageing activity of ethanol extract of Cantigi (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Blume Miq.) leaf and the extract loaded gelatin nanoparticles. Pharm Educ. 2022;22(2):151-155. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.222.151155.

Yildirim M, Weiss A-V, Schneider M. The effect of elasticity of gelatin nanoparticles on the interaction with macrophages. Pharmaceutics. 2023;15(1):199. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010199. PMID: 36678828. PMCID: PMC9861130

Song X, Gan K, Qin S, et al. Preparation and characterization of general-purpose gelatin-based co-loading flavonoids nano-core structure. Sci Rep. 2019;9:6365. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42909-0.

Kosasih K, Sumaryono W, Mudhakir D, Supriyono A, Christian YE, Debora R. Effects of gelatin and glutaraldehyde concentrations on characteristics of Cantigi (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Miq.) extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles as antioxidant. JHPR. 2021;4(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.20473/jhpr.vol.4-issue.1.1-7

Kesornbuakao K, Amornraksa S, Sriariyanun S, Asavasanti S, Yasurin P. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica chloroform extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. In: ICCMP [Internet]. MATEC Web of Conferences: 2018;187:02002 [cited 2023 October 12 ]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/ 201818702002.

Kosasih K, Nurfitriyati H, Hafidz R. IAI SPECIAL EDITION: Cytotoxic activity of Cantigi leaf extract (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Blume Miq.) on HeLa cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells. Pharm Educ. 2022;22(2):147-150. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.222.147150.

Kosasih K, Anwar E, Mudhakir D, Supriyono A. Improvement of in vitro cytotoxic activity of cantigi extract on T47D breast cancer cells using gelatin nanoparticles. In: Youssef AT, editor. Novel Research Aspects in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 4 September 2023 [Internet]. Kolkata (India): BP International; 2023 [cited 2023 October 12]. p. 153-167. Available from: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nramms/v1/6217B.

Augsburger LL, Hoag SW, eds. Pharmaceutical dosage forms: Capsules. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2018.

Masfria M, Sumaiyah S, Syahputra H, Witarman M. Formulation and evaluation of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory capsules containing Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit nanoparticles. Sci Technol Indones. 2023; 8(4): 607-615.

Farmakope Herbal Indonesia Edisi II : Suplemen I. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2022. https://farmalkes.kemkes.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/Buku-Suplemen-I-FHI-Edisi-II.pdf

Muti AF, Harfiani E, Giri PAA, Wulandari AA. Specific and non-specific parameters of ethanolic extract of Jombang leaves (Taraxacum officinale FH Wigg.). Acta Chem Malays. 2023; 7(2): 45-48. https://doi.org/10.26480/acmy.02.2023.45.48

Khan SA. Mini review: Opportunities and challenges in the techniques used for preparation of gelatin nanoparticles. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2020; 33(1): 221-228. https://doi.org/10.36721/ PJPS. 2020. 33.1.REG.221-228.1

Milano F, Masi A, Madaghiele M, Sannino A, Salvatore L, Gallo N. Review: Current trends in gelatin-based drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutics. 2023; 15: 1499. https://doi.org/10.3390/ pharmaceutics15051499.

Baliyan S, et al. Determination of antioxidants by DPPH radical scavenging activity and quantitative phytochemical analysis of Ficus religiosa. Molecules. 2022; 27(4): 1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041326. PMCID: PMC8878429. PMID: 35209118.

USP 2023 (United State Pharmacopeia 46 - NF 41): General Chapter, <921> Water Determination. webofpharma.com. https://doi.org/10.31003/USPNF_M99710_02_01

USP 2023 (United State Pharmacopeia 46 - NF 41): General Chapter, <786> Particle Size Distribution Estimation by Analitical Sieving. webofpharma.com. https://doi.org/10.31003/ USPNF_ M99584_02_01

USP 2023 (United State Pharmacopeia 46 - NF 41): General Chapters, <616> Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders. webofpharma.com. https://doi.org/10.31003/USPNF_M99375_01_01

USP 2023 (United State Pharmacopeia 46 - NF 41): General Chapter, <1174> Powder Flow. webofpharma.com. https://doi.org/10.31003/USPNF_M99885_01_01

Šedbarė R, Janulis V, Ramanauskiene K. Formulation and biopharmaceutical evaluation of capsules containing freeze-dried Cranberry fruit powder. Plants. 2023; 12(6): 1397. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/plants12061397. PMCID: PMC10057423. PMID: 36987086

Ditjen POM RI. Parameter Standar Umum Ekstrak Tumbuhan Obat. Jakarta: Depkes RI. 2000.

Syukri Y, Purwati R, Hazami N, Tahmid HA, Fitria A. Standardization of specific and non-specific parameters of Propolis extract as raw material for herbal product. EKSAKTA J Sci Data Anal. 2020; 20(1): 36-43. https://doi.org/10.20885/EKSAKTA.vol1.iss1.art6

Lee EJ, Khan SA, Park JK, Lim KH. Studies on the characteristics of drug-loaded gelatin nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2012; 35: 297-307.

Cortés et al., 2021 Non-ionic surfactants for stabilization of polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical uses. Materials. 14(12): 3197. doi: 10.3390/ma14123197

Agnes-Valencia Weiss et al. Gelatin nanoparticles with tunable mechanical properties: effect of crosslinking time and loading. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2022, 13, 778–787. https://doi.org/ 10. 3762/ bjnano.13.68

http://www.gelatin-gmia.com/technical-data.html; http://www.gelatin-gmia.com/uploads/1/1/8/4/118450438/gmia_ gelatin_manual_2019.pdf.

Kosasih. Formulasi nanopartikel gelatin ekstrak daun cantigi (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Blume Miq.) sebagai antikanker payudara in vitro. Disertasi, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Pancasila, Jakarta, Indonesia. 2022.

Published
2024-03-31
Section
Articles