Eksplorasi dan Revisi Tujuan Karier: Respon Individu ketika Pencapaian Karier Melampaui Target

  • Sari Zakiah Akmal Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas YARSI
DOI: https://doi.org/10.35814/mind%20set.v2i01.5513
Abstract views: 106 | PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) downloads: 89
Keywords: career exploration, positive career goal discrepancies, upward goal revision, young adult


There has been limited research on investigating young adults’ regulatory responses to the positive career goal discrepancies (current career progress ahead of career goal). In fact, it is important to further explore this topic to optimize young adults’ career potential. This study hypothesized that young adults who experienced positive career goal discrepancies would more likely engage in career exploration activities that would trigger upward career goal revisions. We tested that hypothesis by using a quantitative approach and a cross-sectional study. About 314 first-year undergraduate students (Mage = 18.63, SD = 0.81) was hired using the accidental sampling technique were participated in this study. The Positive Career Goal Discrepancy, The Career Exploration, and The Upward Career Goal Revision Scales were used to collect the data. The mediation analysis shows that positive career goal discrepancy trigger young adult’s to revise their career goal upward, both directly and indirectly via career explorations(range of 95% CI indirect effect [.007 - .019]). Young adults who experienced positive career goal discrepancies would engage in career exploration activities, which would trigger them to set a more challenging career goal. This result inform the career counsellor and practitioners on how to optimize young adults career potentials.


Akmal, S. Z., Creed, P. A., Hood, M., & Duffy, A. (2021). The Positive Career Goal Discrepancy Scale: Development and initial validation. Journal of Career Assessment, 29(2), 338–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072720976376
Akmal, S. Z., Hood, M., Creed, P. A., & Duffy, A. L. (2022). Young adults’ self-regulatory responses to positive career goal discrepancies: Testing cross-lagged eelationships. Journal of Career Assessment, 30(4), 802–820. https://doi.org/10.1177/10690727211068106
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248–287. http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/BanduraPubs/Bandura1991OBHDP.pdf
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review, 52(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1
Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12124
Brown, S. D., Tramayne, S., Hoxha, D., Telander, K., Fan, X., & Lent, R. W. (2008). Social cognitive predictors of college students ’ academic performance and persistence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.09.003
Carr, A., Cullen, K., Keeney, C., Canning, C., Mooney, O., Chinseallaigh, E., & O’Dowd, A. (2021). Effectiveness of positive psychology interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Positive Psychology, 16(6), 749–769. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2020.1818807
Carver, C. S. (2003). Pleasure as a sign you can attend to something else. Cognition and Emotion, 17(2), 241–261. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930302294
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2000). On the structure of behavioral self-regulation. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeinder (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 41–84). Academic Press.
Converse, P. D., Steinhauser, E., & Pathak, J. (2010). Individual differences in reactions to goal-performance discrepancies over time. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(2), 138–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.09.010
Creed, P. A., & Hood, M. (2015). The development and initial validation of a scale to assess career goal discrepancies. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 308–317. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072714535175
Creed, P. A., Hood, M., & Hu, S. (2017). Personal orientation as an antecedent to career stress and employability confidence: The intervening roles of career goal-performance discrepancy and career goal importance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 99, 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.12.007
Creed, P. A., Wamelink, T., & Hu, S. (2015). Antecedents and consequences to perceived career goal-progress discrepancies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.12.001
Donovan, J. J., & Hafsteinsson, L. G. (2006). The impact of goal-performance discrepancies, self-efficacy, and goal orientation on upward goal revision. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(4), 1046–1069. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00054.x
Donovan, J. J., Lorenzet, S. J., Dwight, S. A., & Schneider, D. (2018). The impact of goal progress and individual differences on self-regulation in training. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 48(12), 661–674. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12556
Donovan, J. J., & Williams, K. J. (2003). Missing the mark: Effects of time and causal attributions on goal revision in response to goal-performance discrepancies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 379–390. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.3.379
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., Danks, N. P., & Ray, S. (2021). Mediation Analysis. In: Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Using R. (Classroom). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80519-7
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. The Guilford Press.
Hu, S., Creed, P. A., & Hood, M. (2017). Career goal revision in response to negative feedback: Testing a longitudinal cross-lagged model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(3), 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000193
Kleine, A. K., Schmitt, A., & Wisse, B. (2021). Students’ career exploration: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 131(October), 103645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2021.103645
Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2013). Social cognitive model of career self-management: Toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 557–568. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033446
Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2019). Social cognitive career theory at 25: Empirical status of the interest, choice, and performance models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 115(April), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.06.004
Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2002). Social Cognitive Career Theroy. In D. Brown (Ed.), Career Choice and Development (4th ed., pp. 255–311).
Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Schmidt, J., Brenner, B., Lyons, H., & Treistman, D. (2003). Relation of contextual supports and barriers to choice behavior in engineering majors: Test of alternative social cognitive models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 458–465. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.50.4.458
Lent, R. W., Sheu, H.-B., Gloster, C. S., & Wilkins, G. (2010). Longitudinal test of the social cognitive model of choice in engineering students at historically black universities. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.09.002
Lomas, T., Waters, L., Williams, P., Oades, L. G., & Kern, M. L. (2021). Third wave positive psychology. Journal of Positive Psychology, 16(5), 660–674. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2020.1805501
Lord, R., Diefendorff, J. M., Schmidt, A. M., & Hall, R. A. (2010). Self-regulation at work. Annual Review, 61(1), 543–568. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100314
Porfeli, E. J., Lee, B., Vondracek, F. W., & Weigold, I. K. (2011). A multi-dimensional measure of vocational identity status. Journal of Adolescence, 34(5), 853–871. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.02.001
Porfeli, E. J., & Skorikov, V. B. (2010). Specific and diversive career exploration during late adolescence. Journal of Career Assessment, 18(1), 46–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072709340528
Salmela-Aro, K., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2007). Personal goals during emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22(6), 690–715. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558407303978
Sheppard, S., Hood, M., & Creed, P. A. (2019). An identity control theory approach to managing career identity in emerging adults. Emerging Adulthood, 8(5), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696819830484
Shulman, S., & Nurmi, J. E. (2010). Dynamics of goal pursuit and personality make-up among emerging adults. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 130, 57–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd
Tolli, A. P., & Schmidt, A. M. (2008). The role of feedback, causal attributions, and self-efficacy in goal revision. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 692–701. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.692
Wang, C., & Mukhopadhyay, A. (2012). The dynamics of goal revision. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 815–832. https://doi.org/10.1086/660853
How to Cite
Akmal, S. Z. (2023). Eksplorasi dan Revisi Tujuan Karier: Respon Individu ketika Pencapaian Karier Melampaui Target. Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi MIND SET, 2(01), 30-43. https://doi.org/10.35814/mind set.v2i01.5513